Monday, March 16, 2020
Essay on Harris Migration Model Essay on Harris Migration Model The Lewis two-sector development model consists of the agricultural sector and the urban sector, with the traditional agricultural sector characterized by excess labor; this surplus labor is dispersed from the agricultural sector to the urban sector (Todaro Smith, 2011). As people move to the urban sector, Gross Domestic Product increases. The over supply of labor in the agricultural means that as people leave and go to the urban sector, output in the agricultural sector will remain the same, and it will not decrease, because there was already an oversupply of labor. Like all models, Lewis makes some assumptions; the first is that all profits in the urban sector are reinvested, and that the level of wages in the urban/industrial sector is fixed. The Lewis development model can be shown graphically as well, the following diagram will show the difference in the Urban/industrial sector and the agricultural sector. In the below diagram in figure 1.1, we can see that in the industrial sector, as the total product increases, so too does the quantity of labor. If we recall one of LewisÃ¢â¬â¢ assumptions was that profits and investments are reinvested back into the sector, causing total product to increase. If we derive this curve we are left with figure 1.2, which shows the real wage in the industrial sector. Figure 1.2 shows that if investments and profits are reinvested back into the labor market, that demand for labor will rise, shown by points B, C and D. Now if we have a look at figure 2.1, we see the total product for the rural sector of the economy. Labor will increase until the average total production (TPA) and Average labor quantity (LA) meet at point A. At point A workers in the rural sector will be earning WA, as shown at point E in figure 2.2, after point A surplus labor will occur and the workers average product will decrease and move down the curve. WA represents the average wage that a worker in the agricultural sector will earn, when comparing this to Wbar in figure 1.2, Lewis assumes that employers in the industrial sector can hire as many workers from the rural sector that they want, and wont need to worry about increasing wages, because the industrial wage is fixed at a higher rate than the rural (Todaro Smith, 2011). So as labor is drawn out of the rural sector and put into the industrial sector, per capital income will rise. Todaro Smith argue that the Lewis model isnÃ¢â¬â¢t effective in explaining recent trends where mass movements from rural areas to industrial areas occur despite increasing unemployment in city areas (p. 337). To explain this occurrence we use the Harris-Todaro migration model. In this model there is also an agricultural and urban sector, but the urban sector is split between the urban formal sector and the urban informal sector. The urban formal sector is comprised of workers hired officially on contracts, whereas the urban informal sector is comprised of those individuals who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have regular jobs. More conventional names for the urban informal sector can be workers for the black market or off the book workers. To make the decision on whether workers will migrate or not, we can use the following equation: Wa (Lf / Lf + Li) x Wf + (Li / Lf + Li) x Wi Where: Lf = formal sector Li = informal sector Wf = urban formal sector wage Wi = urban informal sector wage Wa = agricultural sector wage Equilibrium in the Harris-Todaro model when the wage in the agricultural sector is equal to the expected wage in the urban sector; this can also be
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Avoiding Future Frauds with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay It is clear that the establishment of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) act in 2002 was specific to reducing future financial fraud and imposing criminal penalties for publicly traded companies. What is not clear is whether or not the act has proved to be successful in its implementation and governance. The establishment of the act and subsequent amendments are intended to protect the public from fraud in the financial accounting of publicly traded corporations. In 2002, there were opinions both for and against the effectiveness of SOX. More than a decade later, there are still opinions on both sides of the debate. Criticism of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act The effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley act has been highly criticized since its inception. One of the major contentions is that the Sarbanes-Oxley act has no provisions to differentiate the requirements for small publicly traded businesses from large conglomerates (that lead and often monopolize the marketplace). Publicly traded companies that are small in size may find the costs of compliance prohibitive to the future of their business (Coustan, 2004). Critics of SOX believe that this unnecessarily reduces the number of players in a competitive marketplace. The cost of compliance can be excessive for some smaller companies. Auditing expenses cause companies to seek private investment and become privately owned (San Antonio Express-News, 2007). Ten years ago, critics expressed Ã¢â¬Å"fears that small, publicly listed companies might not meet internal control reporting requirements without substantial additional expense; some may have to delist because of it. It could mean only larger companies will go publicÃ¢â¬ (Coustan, 2004, p. 1). In recent years, this debate continues. Critics still express concerns Ã¢â¬Å"that Sarbanes-Oxley is overreaching and has placed unnecessaryÃ restrictions on corporations that have and will continue to unduly inhibit corporate performance until they are removedÃ¢â¬ (Brite, 2013). Another major contention of critics is that the costs of compliance for outweigh the benefits in an international marketplace. Those against SOX feel that the costs outweigh the benefits and speak out in public forums stating that the Ã¢â¬Å"Sarbanes-Oxley has burdened the US financial market with costly rules and regulations that have reduced international competitivenessÃ¢â¬ (debate.org, 2014). There are those that openly share the opinion that the implementations of regulatory overkill through the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley act Ã¢â¬Å"wrongfully make the innocent suffer for the guiltyÃ¢â¬ (Gilmore, 2013). The reporting requirements of SOX are specific to businesses in the United States. Unlike American business, international business does not have the same requirements. Ã¢â¬Å"Regulatory compliance opposes economic costs on organizations and can affect their competitive advantageÃ¢â¬ (Srinivasan, 2014, p. 44). Increasing the cost for American business decreases competitive advantage in the worldwide marketplace. In addition to cost and competitive advantage, the structure of the bill has also been called into question. The Court of Appeals recently found difficulty with the wording of the amended 18 USC, citing that Ã¢â¬Å"paragraph (b) of the statute includes the word Ã¢â¬Å"knowinglyÃ¢â¬ while paragraph (c) does notÃ¢â¬ (Bishop, 2013). The opinions of the Court of Appeals lends to the public opinion expressed in published CPA perspectives that Ã¢â¬Å"SOX was a hastily assembled billÃ¢â¬ (Moran, 2013). Involved and cumbersome requirements cause confusion and frustration for companies attempting to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley act even more than a decade after its implementation. Companies and lawmakers alike have had difficulty over the years with the interpretation of and compliance with the act. Ã¢â¬Å"SOX brought about many changes to the way public companies had to operate, and there was some question as to how these would stand up over timeÃ¢â¬ (Moran, 2013). Positive Aspects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Despite complaints by critics, there are positive aspects of the Sarbanes-Oxley act that have withstood the test of time. Initial reactions have softened after smaller businesses were granted some relief in later amendments of the act. Larger businesses found that compliance with the actÃ increased investor confidence and contributions. In addition, the resultant increase in financial transparency has improved business relationships on many levels. First and foremost, there are many of the opinion that the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley act increased investor confidence and protection in the marketplace. Ã¢â¬Å"Does Sarbanes-Oxley prevent all bad actors from defrauding investors? No law could accomplish that. But it can and has deterred such activityÃ¢â¬ (Gillian, 2012, p. 1). Those in support of the Sarbanes-Oxley act agree that there is a positive side for investors and the businesses in which they invest. Ã¢â¬Å"A 2005 survey by the Financial Executives Research Foundation f ound that 83 percent of large company CFOs agreed that SOX had increased investor confidence, with 33 percent agreeing that it had reduced fraudÃ¢â¬ (Hanna, 2014, p. 2). With an increase in confidence and a perceived reduction of fraud, investors could more confidently make intelligent business decisions on the purchase and sale of publicly traded companies. Those on the positive side of the SOX act believe that the effects on small business have softened. Studies show that as companies become more accustomed to the costs of compliance, the expense decreases (San Antonio Express-News, 2007). In addition, the effects on smaller companies were ultimately deferred. Ã¢â¬Å"Audit standards also were modified in 2007, a change that reportedly reduced costs for many firms by 25 percent or more per yearÃ¢â¬ (Hanna, 2014, p. 1). Although the costs of compliance decrease retained earnings, investors are more confident in the reliability of company reports (Gillian, 2012). Ã¢â¬Å"The cost of being a publicly traded company did cause some firms to go private, but research shows these were primarily organizations that were smaller, less liquid, and more fraud-proneÃ¢â¬ (Hanna, 2014, p. 1). These modifications of the act allowed more small businesses to remain competitive in the marketplace. Business relationships have also improved with increased transparency. The reduction of information asymmetry is a direct benefit to both the company and the investors. Ã¢â¬Å"Information asymmetry is a situation in which one party in a transaction has more or superior information compared to anotherÃ¢â¬ (Brite, 2013, p. 1). Periodic testing of internal controls required by SOX 404, increases transparency among internal and external stakeholders of the business. The American Institute of CPAs states on their website that Ã¢â¬Å"section 404B has led to improve financial reporting and greaterÃ transparencyÃ¢â¬ (American Institute of CPAs, 2006 Ã¢â¬â 2014). To evaluate the effectiveness of SOX in preventing future frauds, one must take into consideration the many different situations in which the legislation is applicable. Enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley act increases corporate responsibility and sets restrictions on auditor services. This certainly reduces the potential for fraud; however it does not eliminate it. From a business perspective, compliance is beneficial. The costs of implementing the requirements may be high; however the benefit of increased investor confidence in a publicly traded environment is higher. There are going to be situations in which fraud is inevitable. Fraudulent wrongdoers and companies will find loopholes and the recent Court of Appeals case is evidence of that fact. As with any law, this regulation will reduce the frequency of, but not prevent, purposeful future criminal activity. References American Institute of CPAs. (2006 Ã¢â¬â 2014). Section 404B of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. believe the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has failed? -believe-the-sarbanes-oxley-act-has-failed Gillian, K. (2012, July 24). It Enhanced Investor Protection.
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Can the United States be said to be dominant within the international financial institutions of the IMF and the World Bank - Dissertation Example IMF (International Monetary Funds) and World Bank are the most prominent international financial institutions that were formed after the World War II with an objective to transfer capital funds from robust to starving countries in the world. Kapur (1999) says that the World Bank was established to serve the purpose of a financial cooperative with the patronage of economically strong countries of the world. The Bank was determined to raise funds from international market at lower rates and disperse them to the economically weaker countries for which it was not easy to borrow from international market at those rates as the Bank. IMF and World Bank have strong economic and political ties. A country willing to become a member of the latter needs to be a member of the former institution. The management framework of both these financial institutions is similar with the striking difference of share allocation system that ascertains the number of shares owned by each member country. Mistry illustrates that share allocation to the members of the World Bank follows no certain rules or obligations, however in the IMF, the share allocation is determined by Quota system where every country owns a specific number of fixed shares. Again in both these institutions, the borrowing countries hold a smaller ratio of the total shares as opposed to the shares owned by the economically stronger countries that enjoy influence over the entire minority. These institutions can exercise a great degree of influence both economically and politically.... Kapur (1999) says that the World Bank was established to serve the purpose of finance cooperative with the patronage of economically strong countries of the world. The Bank was determined to raise funds from international market at lower rates and disperse them to the economically weaker countries for which it was not easy to borrow from international market at those rates as the Bank. IMF and World Bank have strong economic and political ties. A country willing to become a member of the latter needs to be a member of former institution. The management framework of both these financial institutions are similar with the striking difference of share allocation system that ascertains the number of shares owned by each member country. Mistry (1995) illustrates that share allocation to the members of the World Bank follows no certain rules or obligations, however in the IMF, the share allocation is determined by Quota system where every country owns a specific number of fixed shares. Again in both these institutions the borrowing (developing) countries hold a smaller ratio of the total shares as opposed to the shares owned by the economically stronger countries that enjoy influence over the entire minority. These institutions can exercise a great degree of influence both economically and politically over the countries that choose to borrow from IMF and World Bank. Cox (1993) illuminates that the power and influence of these international financial institutions is due to the reasons that their conditions most prominently enhance their power over the borrowing countries, they are formed by economic super powers so as to maintain their power, and their key members mostly represent countries with high economic strength.
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Policy and Practice in PCET - Essay Example It was noted that the young people aged between 15-24 years needed much support before they attained their goals. During this time they usually experience so many changes in their lives. This includes physical changes of growth and also in the social settings. In their youthful stages they normally have so many choices and it is normally tricky for them to make a decision. They need much guidance and support. 1 This is where the young people are helped to access the working environment. This helps the young people to get quality skills in different areas. In the past there was the need bridge the gap between what the industry needed and the education sector in general. The government strived very hard to bridge this gap. The education sector needed to know what was marketable at that time. During the early 80's it was noted that the entire market wanted that the education system systems prepare children to work. In the early 1980's the local authorities were mostly accused of carrying out controls in the learning institutions. During this time it was noted that what the industries needed is not what the schools produced. It was noted that the knowledge passed on in schools was not quite shallow and quite theoretical and not practical. This was mostly started in the year 1973. It was aimed at helping the sixteen year olds to get the work experience. The government helped by financing such initiatives. The local companies and industries trained the young on job. This scheme was started on one year basis then later expanded to two years. Technical and Vocational Education This was initiated by the government in 1982.In this program the colleges were encouraged to include some practice of the work in their curriculum. Records had to be kept to monitor how the students performed Critically Assessing Vocationalising in the PCET has got its own advantages. It helps the young people be equipped with working skills early in life. This helps them to easily access jobs in the society. However it is healthy to note the other side of the coin of this venture. The vocationilising in the PCET is monolithic in nature. It really narrows down the learning process in the aim to meet what the market wants. Knowledge cannot just be narrowed down to a product, it is a process. In vocational education, as long as one gets the skill, that's all. The students lack reflection, insight and critique of things. 2 Strategies The PCET normally uses various strategies to widen participation. The widening participation strategy has got objectives like; The monitoring and tracking of students is done using a system. The system also helps the students who have completed their studies to get employment. This is where the companies the companies that are offering the training services retain the students. This strategy aims at encouraging the young people from backgrounds that are not highly represented to attend the PCET. Partnerships are highly encouraged to widen participation. The Higher Education Funding Council for England enhances participation in sports by funding the PCET programs. This enables the students from the low class groups in the society to access these services. Mostly the students ask the learning institutions or schools to retain them. The learning institutions normally give advice concerning the opportunities such
Thursday, January 23, 2020
How Wilfred Owen Challenges The Romanticised & Glamorised Picture Of War This essay is to explain and to show how Wilfred Owen challenges the glamorised image surrounding the war. This glamorous image was created by the media in order to get people to join up for the war, as a result of the propaganda people believed that it was honourable to go to war and you would be regarded as a hero. To do this I will need to present evidence, using quotes and commentating on his various writing techniques. To show this I am going to write about two of his poems: Dulce et decorum est and Disabled. Both of these poems are renowned for challenging the propaganda created by the media and proves that it was all lies created to make people sign up for war and it's not in any way honourable, heroic, glamorous or romantic to die in the war. These poems have credibility because Owen has first hand experience in the war as he served in WW1. He uses this to his advantage and writes truthfully and openly to crush any remaining propaganda that may still say that it is sweet and fitting to die for your country. Dulce et decorum est is a poem that follows a nameless man through a day during WW1 and describes some of the things that he saw. He writes that they look 'like old beggars'. This is an effective simile because when you think of 'old beggars' you think of dirty, scruffy, weak ill people, which is a complete contradictory to the image of a soldier that the media created using propaganda. They were 'coughing like old hags'. This is a simile. 'hags' are unhealthy and unfit and this is not what soldiers are expected to be like. 'All went lame, all blind;/Drunk with fatigue.' This is written in the past tense and it is ono... ... same but it is put in different style of writing. At the end in Dulce he directly addresses the reader, angrily and definite. Disabled has the same message but instead of telling you what you should and shouldn't do it makes you think. The message is there but in a different way. The characters in each poem are completely different. Dulce's character is written about in first person narrative and the man who dies is anonymous, which I think symbolises how you don't have to know some one to be permanently affected by their death. It shows that death can strike anyone. The man died by accident. Disabled though gave us a history of the character, so we knew a little bit about his personality and what he used to be like before the war. I think this shows us how much one person can be changed and how his life has been ruined just because he couldn't say no.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Dr Maria Montessori started her work in the field of education and child psychology, when she had already obtained a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in medicine and surgery. Her scientific training and experience were exceptionally broad based and unique. Her approach to education encompassed the whole development of man from birth to adulthood. The most important contribution of her work, in the present day, is the focussed attention on the fact that no attempt to solve social and moral problems of the society will succeed if it is concentrated only on man-the-adult, and not on the whole man, including his childhood. Therefore early child education becomes important for a better society. Ã¢â¬Å"Today in social life, there exists an urgent need- that of reforming methods of education and instruction, and whoever strives to reach this goal is striving for the regeneration of manÃ¢â¬ (The Discovery of Child, Chapter 2, Page 2). This motivation to create new human kind through early education was the hallmark of the education philosophy of Dr Montessori. Dr Montessori observed that regular education follows a steady ascent, becoming increasingly difficult year after year, after starting at the age of 06 yrs. However, she discovered, through her innovative experiments, that human development and learning is not steady and linear, but happens in a series of formative planes, starting from the birth of the child. She also discovered that the complete development of human being is made possible by the tendency of the human being to certain universal actions in relation to their environment and the most productive development was observed when the environment was self chosen and close to the interests of the child. Dr Montessori felt that adult should not assume that the child is empty vessel waiting to be filled with our knowledge and experience. It is important to understand that the child has own potential for life and a suitable environment is to be created for the child to exercise the opportunity to learn on his own under limited close observation. Dr Montessori maintained that the first period of life was the most important in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, it is during this period that thechildÃ¢â¬â¢s powers of absorption and learning are highest and life-long attitudes and patterns of learning are firmly formed. She believed that Ã¢â¬Å"the child is endowed with unknown powers, which can guide us to a radiant futureÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The greatness of human personality begins at the hour of the birthÃ¢â¬ (The Absorbent Mind, Chp 1, Page 2). Dr Montessori termed that every creature, whether plant or animal, comes from a primary, simple and undifferentiated cell with the characteristics of the creature thus developed, greatly depending on some unidentified force. Every germ cell bears within itself a pattern of the organism to be, without visible sign, so that every new-born body, whatever species, bears in itself a pattern of psychical instinct, of functions that will set it in relation to its environment, for the fulfilment of a cosmic mission. Dr Montessori felt that this environment must provide not only the means of physiological existence, but stimuli to the mysterious mission inscribed in every creature that is born, all of which was summoned by their environment not only life but the exercise of a necessary office for the conservation of the world and its harmony. In this way, Dr Montessori, described that there are two initial embryos, namely physiological or the physical and spiritual, each with distinct roles to play in the life of a child. She distinguished that these stages of early development, in man as pre-natal and post natal, where-in, this post-natal work is a constructive activity which is carried on in what may be called the Ã¢â¬Å"formative periodÃ¢â¬ , and makes the baby into a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"Spiritual EmbryoÃ¢â¬ (The Absorbent Mind, Chp 7, Page 62). According to this postnatal development happens only in man and the prolonged infancy of man separates him entirely from the animals, whereby man is seen as a being different from all others. Dr Montessori believed that for the psychic pattern to reveal itself, two conditions must be fulfilled, first, the environment that he interacts to understand the limit of his universe, second, the freedom to reveal himself. She emphasised that when these two conditions are met, the psychic life of the child will not reach its potential and his personality will be stunted. Dr Montessori strongly felt that, the work of man on the earth is related to his spirit, to his creative intelligence, therefore this spirit and creative intelligence must be the fulcrum of his existence, and of all the workings of human body. It is about this fulcrum, the behaviour and physical economy is organised. Dr Montessorisays that the whole man develops within this Ã¢â¬Å"spiritual haloÃ¢â¬ and therefore first care given to the new-born babe, over riding all others, must be a care for his mental life, and not just for his bodily life. Dr Montessori described the time line of 3 yrs from birth, as the period of Ã¢â¬ËSpiritual EmbryoÃ¢â¬â¢, and all the non-physical qualities namely his intelligence, temperament, personality, spirit and soul develop in this stage. Dr Montessori describes that development of child is due to an unconscious power, a vital force, she borrowed a word Ã¢â¬ËhormeÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe this vital force, which is similar to the force that created Ã¢â¬ËNebulaeÃ¢â¬â¢, pushed by the universal unconscious intelligence of force. She thought that, this force is similar to the force that is pushing or driving the entire world towards teleological end in the philosophy of the French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Dr Montessori opined that the child has a different relation to its environment, the child absorbs the environment and it becomes his soul and reincarnates in himself all in the world about him that his eyes see and ears hear and child is transformed by them. Ã¢â¬ This vital kind of memory, which does not consciously remember, but absorb images into the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s very life, has been given a special name by Sir Percy Nunn, called MnemeÃ¢â¬ (The Absorbent Mind, Chp 7 , Page 74). All the social and moral habits that shape a manÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, the sentiments of caste, and all kinds of other feelings, that make him a typical Human being like a typical Indian, a typical Italian, or a typical Englishman, are formed during infancy, in virtue of that mysterious mental power that psychologists have called Ã¢â¬Å"MnemeÃ¢â¬ . It is with the combination of this powerful memory and the vital force, that the child experienceÃ¢â¬â¢s the environment and imbibes the attitudes for life, which result in his regeneration through different stages of development. Dr Montessori said Ã¢â¬Å"Man unlike the animals, is not born with movements already co-ordinated; he has to shape and co-ordinate his own movements. Nor has he even a predetermined aim; this too, must find for himselfÃ¢â¬ (The Absorbent Mind, Chp 7, Page 77). The child has to self construct and learn from his environment, through various planes of development, happening in his life at different ages. Dr Montessori defined 04 main panes of development, from the birth to 24 yrs of age, each lasting for 6 yrs. Ã¢â¬Å"Children are motivated from within. The child has within him the person he will become, and it is our role as nurturing adults to encourage the process of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s self-constructionÃ¢â¬ (http://www.pcmontessori.org/about/montessori.php). Therefore, the child has to develop his own powers for reacting to life. Dr Montessori identified two aids one is internal aids and external aids that help the child to develop, of which the internal aids are sensitive period and the absorbent mind. She narrates that, children have the ability and passion to excel at certain activities at specific periods of time in their life, which disappears after the passage of that specific interval of time in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. She adds that, during such a period the child is endowed with special sensibility, which urges the child to focus attention only on certain aspects of environment, excluding others. Sensitive periods are those blocks of time, when the child is absorbed in only one characteristic of his environment, excluding other. Sensitive periods are active between 0-6 yrs of age. There are six sensitive periods defined namely (1) Sensitive to order, (2) Learning through their five senses, (3) Sensitivity to small objects, (4) Sensitivity to co-ordination of movement, (5) Sensitivity to language, (6) Sensitivity to social aspect of life. Ã¢â¬Å"The baby has a creative aptitude, a potential energy that will enable it to build up a mental world from the world about itÃ¢â¬ (The Secret of Childhood, Chp 3, Page 33). This the child learns through the sensitive periods, which follow each other and are overlapping as well. While above periods describe the pattern the child learns in gaining knowledge of his environment, the absorbent explains the process of the knowledge gained from this learning. The absorbent mind is divided into the un-conscious (0-3yrs) and conscious mind (3-6yrs). In the un-conscious mind, the child absorbs from the environment, and therefore, there is a great requirement to make the environment as interesting and striking for the child, which helps the child to create his own impressions about the environment and develop the idea of analyses and reasoning on the basis of these impressions. The conscious mind follows the unconscious mind and takes all the inputs from the preceding un-conscious mind, for development of his mental functions, with the help of already established power of memory, analyses and reasoning. With the conscious mind, the child has an established will and memory, which he uses for further self construction. The child at this stage is able to write, read, understand numbers etc., Dr Montessori defines some laws ofdevelopment, which actually reveals the kind of experiments she had carried out and clearly defines the requirements for the child to learn different things at different stages of development. There are eight laws of development which unfold over a course of time. They are: (1) Law of Work: The child, when given work in a prepared environment, with any kind of behaviour, yields to the learning mode and gives up any kind of aggressive behaviour. This in turn shapes his personality and existence which come face to face in the prepared environment. (2) Law of Independence: When provided with independence, the child strives to listen to its inner guide for actions and this helps in his innate development. (3) Power of Attention: At a certain stage of development, the child becomes sensitive to his environment with great intensity and an interest not seen before. When a child works, he develops his ability to concentrate which replaces his instinctive interest with intellectual interest, this leads to the child becoming calmer and controlled. (4) Development of Will: The child, through repeated work, slowly establishes his will. Dr. Montessori observed three stages of this Will development. First, as the child repeats his work many times over a period of time, he gains power over his own movements. The child then moves to the second stage that is accepting self discipline as a way of life. After achieving self- discipline as a way of life, the child reaches the third stage of the developed will involving the power to obey. (5) Development of Intelligence: For a child, development of intelligence through the comparison and differentiation of the already learnt attributes of the environment and this is the key to understanding life itself. It helps to put the images of consciousness in order. (6) Development of Imagination and Creativity: Dr. Montessori believed that development of the powers of imagination and creativity develops as mental capacities are established through the interactions with the environment. She believed that when the child has developed realistic and ordered perception of is environment, he capable of selecting and emphasising process necessary for creative endeavours. (7) Development of Emotional and Spiritual life: The child possesses within him at birth the senses that respond to his emotional side to the spiritual environment, due to which he learns he receives emotional and spiritual stimuli from all personnel whom he is close to. Ã¢â¬Å"A sensitive period is at work, a divine command is breathing through helplessthings, animating them with the spiritÃ¢â¬ (The Secret of Childhood, Chp 3, Page 38). Dr Montessori maintained that development has to be accompanied with constant spirit for achieving greater heights. Dr Montessori named environment and freedom as the external aids of self construction, this she advised teachers to make changes to the environment to accommodate the requirements of the child, to be able to nourish the requirements of the child. Since, at all times the child is interacting with its environment, it is highly mandatory to maintain the environment to provide best opportunity for the child to learn. Ã¢â¬Å"Every object must have a definite place, where it is kept, and where it remains, when it is not in useÃ¢â¬ (The discovery of the Child, Chp 17, Page 182). Since all objects form the central part of the environment, it is required that the environment is not be disturbed for the child to learn from it. Freedom for a child provides an opportunity to express himself which in turn helps to grow the developed pattern resulting in the overall childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. This freedom and prepared environment leads to normalisation in children. The teacher involved in this method of teaching has to provide the freedom and ensure that the environment is created for the child to avail every opportunity to learn, with all the freedom to learn things. According to Dr Montessori, there should be balance created between the mind and body of the child, to work in agreement and harmony and this will create normalised children, else there would be deviations in the child. Dr Montessori has classified deviated psyches into fugue, barriers, attachment, possessiveness, inferiority, fear and lies. Each of these category, has strong different reasons behind them, which encompasses the environment the child has been brought up in, how the child was treated in its childhood etc., Dr Montessori has framed different methods and advises for teachers in dealing with these children. Dr Montessori emphasises that normalised children are the result of freedom and ideal environment provided to the children, which will result in cohesion of children, due to the developed respect for others, helping nature, harmonious mind. Also qualities of co-operation, discipline, social sentiment, obedience and character are developed by child that will lead in the making of a better society and better human kind. Ã¢â¬Å"The teacher, when she begins work in our schools, must have kind of faith that the child will reveal himselfÃ¢â¬ (The Absorbent Mind, Chp 27, Page 287). Dr Montessori, places huge responsibility on the teacher, of that of creating a conducive environment for child with all freedom and required observation prowess, to assess and correct the child. Dr Montessori wants the teacher to have infinite faith in the child that the child will blossom into a flower with its own colour, shape, size and fragrance. Ã¢â¬Å"they who know the most Must mourn the deepest oÃ¢â¬â¢er the fatal truth. The tree of Knowledge is not that of LifeÃ¢â¬ (Maria Montessori- Her Life and Work, Chp 21,Page 368). These words were from BryonÃ¢â¬â¢s Manfred. EM Standing, author of Ã¢â¬ËMaria Montessori Ã¢â¬â Her Life and WorkÃ¢â¬â¢, describes the need for completing the idea of Dr Montessori Ã¢â¬ËEducation for lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ through dissemination of Montessori Method of learning in creating harmonious children and greater future which is at peace with each other and with the environment. Bibliography: Dr. Maria Montessori, The Secret of Childhood, Orient Black Swan, India Dr. Maria Montessori, The Absorbent Mind, Kalakshetra Press, India Dr. Maria Montessori, The Discovery of the Child, Kalakshetra Press, India EM Standing, Maria Montessori Ã¢â¬â Her Life and Work, Penguin Putnam Inc, New York http://www.pcmontessori.org/about/montessori.php
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Islam is one of the worlds greatest monotheistic religions. The followers of Islam are known as Muslims, and they believe in God, Allah. The word Islam is an Arabic word that means submitting and surrendering your will to Almighty God.Ã¢â¬ The word comes from the same root as the Arabic word salamÃ¢â¬ which means peace. Islam is the religion of about one and half billion people in the world. It is the second largest in the number of followers after Christianity. I chose this religion as a topic of my research paper because at high school in my world history class I read few things about this religion like God is one, men can have four wives, etc and those sound interesting to me, so I want to learn more about this religion. The history ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This belief frees him from all fears and superstitions by making him conscious of the presence of the Almighty Allah and of mans obligations towards him. Muslims consider everything they do in life to be an act of worship, if it is done according to Allahs guidance (Mahmoud 16). A long time ago, at work, my coworkers were talking about Islam and suddenly that discussion turned into a serious dispute. Some people were in favor of religion and some were not. Different people have different views about Islam; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s another reason why I chose this religion as my topic. I read many things about Islam online. Some of their rituals really sound interesting, and I wanted to view them in person. To do my future research, I went to a mosque with my friend who is a true Muslim. A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship. For many Muslim people, a mosque is more than a place of worship. Muslims worship, study and discuss Islam, and do many other things in a mosque and its surrounding buildings. Usually, the mosques are very interesting, decorated buildings with lots of design and have minarets. Minarets are tall towers; they are at one of the corners of the mosque. The top of the minaret is the highest point in the mosque, and usually the highest point in the area around the mosque, but here the mosque building wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the same asShow MoreRelatedCulture Within The Islamic Religion1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Culture within the Islamic Religion Culture is the common uniting factors that a community shares. It includes values, customs, habits, thoughts that guide members of the society. Culture can also be defined as practices and knowledge that is transmitted to the generation by social interactions between members of a social community (Pohlong 1). It differs from community to community. 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